Teaching in lifelong learning: a guide to theory and practice

When you have included information from published sources in your work, you must acknowledge this information fully and accurately by:

  • Identifying any sources you have taken information from in the body of your written work in the form of an in-text citation.
  • Providing a detailed list of all the sources you have produced in-text citations for in an alphabetical list at the end of our work, this is known as a reference list.

In-text citations

There are two ways to produce in-text citations.

1. Authors’ name mentioned within body of written work 

If you mention the authors’ name in your written work, there is no need to include their name in your in-text citation, just include the date of publication.

i.e.  Avis et al (2010) makes the point that….

2. Authors’ name NOT mentioned within body of written work

If you don’t mention the authors’ name in your written work then you must include it in your in-text citation.

i.e. Educational standards are not without their critics (Avis et al 2010).

Referencing this book

When you have included an in-text citation for information you have used in the writing of your work,  you must include a full reference for that book in a reference list at the end of your work.

The correct reference for this particular book (using the Harvard style) should look like this:

Avis, J., Fisher, R., and Thompson, R. eds. (2010) Teaching in lifelong learning: a guide to theory and practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.


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